1) Who was the first woman to formulate women’s rights?
QUIZ DEVELOPING DEMOCRACY M5
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Gender Mainstreaming is a political tool to reach a better balance between women and men on all levels of society.
This famous declaration was adopted by the first US women’s congress in Seneca Falls. It included a negative list of “repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of absolute tyranny over her.”
It influenced the international women’s discussion on the rights of women as human rights in the US and in Europe.
In 1979, the year of the CEDAW, the right of women to be protected against violence was not yet considered to belong to the public sphere where the state could interfere. Violence against women was interpreted as a merely private issue. It was only in 1993 at the UN conference on Human Rights in Vienna that the many women NGOs which attended succeeded in having violence against women recognized as a violation of their human rights. The United Nations General Assembly adopted on 20 December 1993 the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.
Hedwig Dohm argued that women and men are different, but both sexes are human beings and insofar as men and women have to be protected in their personal dignity by the respect of their common human rights. This is why she labelled the sentence “Human rights have no gender” in her book “Der Frauen Natur und Recht” (1876)
This chapter in the Platform for Action was a breakthrough in the international women’s debate on human rights, and the slogan Women’s rights are human rights mobilized hundreds of women’s organisations in all countries to rally together at the Beijing conference.
The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms was adopted in 1950 by the European Council and completed by additional protocols, particularly by the European Social Charter (1961) which enshrines economic, social and cultural rights. Individuals can call upon the European Court for Human Rights which has come to some major decisions on women’s issues in recent years.
Iris Marion Young published the book in 2000 (Oxford University Press). She is presently professor for Political Science at Chicago University and has written several important books on feminist philosophy and social theory. She is affiliated to the Gender Studies Center and the Human Rights Program of Chicago University.
Olympe de Gouges formulated in 1791 the Declaration of Rights of Women and Women Citizens, in which she requested the same citizen rights for women as had been formulated for men in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen of the French Revolution. She became famous for her saying: since a woman has the right to mount the scaffold, she has to have also the right to speak in public.
2) What is the “Declaration of Sentiments” of 1848?
A declaration on the importance of romantic feelings by some famous women
writers in Great Britain
A declaration of solidarity of an international women’s conference in Den Haag on the aims of the revolutionary assembly of the Paulskirche in Frankfurt in March 1848
A declaration, adopted at the first U.S. Women’s Congress in Seneca Falls, on basic human rights.
Halina Bendkowski, for many years engaged in the women’s peace movement and an activist for more justice for women created the term in the mid 90s of the 20th century. It was then taken up by Heinrich Böll Foundation and the Green party in Germany.
(2,3 are correct) Total harmony is not really desirable, but the creation of democratic relations between women and men is an important goal. The vision of Gender Democracy tries to overcome the bipolarity of man/woman.
Without the empowerment of women Gender Democracy cannot be reached – but this is not a question of chronology, but rather a parallel process.
All three answers are valid.
3) CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women) is a basic UN document on women’s rights. Nevertheless, one important issue is missing. Which one is it?
The right of women to get the same education as men
The right of women to be protected against any form of violence against them
The right to equal payment for equal work
4) “Human rights have no gender” is an important slogan of the women’s movement. Who is the author and what does it stand for?
Hedwig Dohm (Germany), women’s rights activist in the 19th century,
fighting for the equality of rights of women and men in her book “Der
Frauen Natur und Recht” (1876)
Olympe de Gouges (France), stating the universality of human rights in her famous “Declaration of the rights of women and women citizens” in 1791
Margaret Thatcher, 1990, in a speech before the UN General Assembly against the theory of sexual difference as stated by the Diotima group in Milan
5) “Women’s rights are Human rights” is a slogan which mobilized the international women’s movement in the 20th century. The heading of one chapter in a basic UN document is called Human Rights of Women. Which one is it?
UN Declaration of Human rights 1948
Final document of UN Human rights conference in Vienna 1993
UN Women’s conference in Beijing, 1995: Platform for Action.
6) The European Convention of Human Rights has influenced the human rights debate in Europe during the last 5 decades. Where does it originate? From:
The Council of Europe in Strasbourg
The European Union in Brussels
Organisation of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Paris
8) What is the difference between Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Democracy?
Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Democracy are complementary in the sense that
Gender Mainstreaming is a tool to reach Gender democracy.
Gender Mainstreaming is developed by the international women´s movements and Gender Democracy is developed by a group of open-minded men from Sweden.
There is no difference. Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Democracy are just two different terms for the same thing.
9) Who created the term Gender Democracy?
10) What is a possible definition of Gender Democracy?
Gender Democracy means that women and men live in total harmony.
Gender Democracy is a normative term, which has as its political goal the creation of democratic relations between woman and men.
Gender Democracy – as a visionary goal – means that gender identity is not defined by the bipolarity of man/woman but rather by a potential multitude of gender and sexual identities.
11) How is Women Empowerment (WE) and Gender Democracy (GD)related?
There is no relation. WE and GD are different approaches.
They are linked in a chronological perspective. It always starts with WE and later GD can follow.
Women Empowerment is an important approach to reach Gender Democracy.
12) What could be the role of men in the concept of Gender Democracy?
If they are at the head of institutions and organizations they have to show a strong political will to realize Gender Democracy.
They are important as fathers and care-takers.
Men in general have to become qualified and active towards Gender Democracy.