1) What is the Social Agenda?
A special diary that has to be kept by welfare recipients in the United Kingdom
An EU wide strategy to fight poverty that was introduced at the Council of Nice in 2000
A set of recommended social policy measures that was published by the UN in 1980
QUIZ A GOOD LIFE FOR ALL M4
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In the beginning of the 70s the system of fixed rates of exchange didn´t work any more. The speed of financial transactions grew and therefore exchange rates became less linked to the basic economic data like productivity, inflation, commerce). James Tobin (Nobel Prize in Economy) suggested 1972 to lay a 1%-tax on all transactions in foreign exchange. His idea was that because of the large amount of speculative transactions, this tax would make transactions less lucrative. Today the Tobin Tax is not realized at all. But a lot of NGOs and also politicians are talking about this idea. To get well informed have a look at the website of ATTAC – http://www.attac.org.
The European Social Charter was launched by the European Council in 1961. The full text of the Charter as well as latest developments and discussions around its content can be found at a special website: http://www.coe.int/T/E/Human_Rights/Esc/
The “Ethics of Care” have been developed as a feminist ethical approach in the 80s. As well as considering a different approach to moral reasoning, the necessity to put care activities at the centre of social and economic politics is stressed. Among the important women thinkers and writers in this field are Nel Noddings, Joan Tronto and Selma Sevenhuijsen, to name just a few.
According to official statistics 68 million people within the EU live in poverty. To learn more about poverty in Europe and ways to fight and prevent it visit the Website of the European Anti Poverty Network: http://www.eapn.org
Even if it might sound unbelievable and even if social transfers usually certainly improve the quality of life for those who receive them, it is also true that they widen the gender inequality gap. This means that men gain more from social benefits then women, too, due to a social policy system that is in most countries closely attached to the labour market system and/or based on a male breadwinner model.
The name of the famous economist was John Maynard Keynes (1883 – 1946). His best known work is “THE GENERAL THEORY OF EMPLOYMENT INTEREST AND MONEY” With this book he shook the “Classical Economy” of Adam Smith (1723-1790) who stressed that the economy is guided by the principle of an “invisible hand” and follows a natural order and therefore does not need influence by policy and politicians. Keynes on the contrary pointed out how important policy is to influence economy with regards to certain political aims.
Milton Friedman (*1912) has been one of this centuries most influential economists whose theories highly influenced the politics of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.
The so called Social Agenda is an EU wide strategy to fight poverty which was introduced at the Council of Nice in the year 2000 following a commitment of the EU Council in Lisbon to make a decisive impact on eradicating poverty by the year 2010.
The “Social Agenda” is also the name of a quarterly periodical published by the Commission's Employment and Social Affairs DG
To learn more about the Social Agenda consult the Website of DG Employment and Social Affairs: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/index_en.html
A NGO perspective on the Social Agenda can be found at the website of the European Anti Poverty Network http://www.eapn.org
2) When and by whom was the European Social Charter launched?
Joan Robinson (1903-1983) was a professor in economics and the first female fellow to be accepted at King’s College in Cambridge in 1979. She studied and wrote on a great number of topics. Being one of the first writers who took Marx seriously as an economist, her 1942 paper on Marxian Economics was considered ground-breaking. Robinson was also very interested in underdeveloped and developing countries.
In 1956 Robinson published her magnum opus "The Accumulation of Capital". Towards the end of her life she wrote many books which tried to bring economic theories closer to the general public.
In Vienna a group of feminist economists set up an association with the name of Joan Robinson and the objective of strengthening today’s women’s economic interests and knowledge.
The name of Karl Marx’ domestic worker, by the way, was Helene Demuth.
To learn more about Joan Robinson browse the web or consult one of the books written on her life and work (e.g. Joan Robinson : A bio-bibliography - James Cicarelli and Julianne Cicarelli, Greenwood Press, 1996; The Economics of Joan Robinson - Maria Cristina Marcuzzo et. al, Routledge, 1996.)
3) What are the “Ethics of Care” about?
4) How many people within the EU live in poverty (according to official statistics in 2004)
5) What are the effects of social transfers for women?
Social transfers improve the situation of women more then they do for men
Social transfers guarantee a more or less balanced benefit for both women and men.
Social transfers widen the gender inequality gap - the gender inequality index is much higher after social transfers!
6) What is the connection between the religious philosopher Thomas Aquinas and economics?
Before he became Bishop he earned his money as a very successful merchant.
He was the founder of the Franciscans – which is a religious order that asks its members to live on very little money.
He introduced the thought that asking interest for money lending could be regarded (and condemned) as usury
7) After World War II, a new financial system was constituted in 1944 in Bretton Woods (GB). All currencies were linked to the US-Dollar to guarantee a stable international financial system. Which famous economist introduced this idea?
9) Who was Joan Robinson?
An excellent British economist, who wrote on a great number of economic topics
and put a special emphasis on the reflection of practices in economic theory.
Joan Robinson is the author of the book “Money for Every Woman”, that was a bestseller in the US and UK in the late 90s. She became famous because of her successful financial speculations at the stock market, where she is also called the “female George Soros”..
Joan Robinson was the domestic worker of Karl Marx.